Climate Change: Implementing the Paris Agreement and the advances made in subsequent climate conferences will be a topic for reflection, as will the United States’ withdrawal from the agreement in contrast to the commitment from China and the European Union. The transition toward a low-carbon economy will have to be adapted to and defined for each country.
Digitalization: This transition also includes the digital shift in the energy industry, which, along with new technologies and innovations, is altering the status quo. New disruptive technologies on both the supply and demand sides indicate hopeful signs of progress in terms of competitiveness and functional performance.
Regulation: The Europe Union’s Winter Package of climate legislation and Spain’s new law on energy transition. Another topic for debate will be the decisions being prepared on energy policies (coal and nuclear power, taxation, new electricity auctions).
Geopolitics: The energy industry is particularly sensitive to geopolitical issues and the evolution of international relations in terms of many different perspectives, conflicts, member states, regional organizations and geography. Furthermore, the near future could bring restrictions in the supply of strategic minerals such as lithium and cobalt. The geopolitics of lithium, cobalt and other raw materials deserve special attention. The risk of the cartelization of supply. Decision-making on nuclear energy and oil is another point to be considered in the transition policies being adopted by member states.
Prices and Taxation of Energy and Carbon: Wishful thinking is not enough to make progress with decarbonization goals. It is essential for cost indications to emerge, either through carbon pricing or the carbon tax, so the demand side can play its indispensable role. Climate change policies implemented thus far have tended to demonize the supply side and treat the members of the demand side like children, despite the fact that demand is largely responsible for the supply on offer.